Have you ever wondered how Microsoft prevents password guessing attacks or brute force attacks on Azure AD? Well, it is basically the same method as you would do on your on-premises User Directory! It is just smarter!
Azure AD Smart lockout is a feature being applied to every sign-in processed by Azure AD, regardless if the user has a managed account or a synced accounts using password hash sync or pass-through authentication.
The smart part comes from the ability to distinguish valid users from attackers. It locks out the attackers while letting your users continue to access their accounts and be productive.
If you still run ADFS, there is also a Feature available named Extranet Smart Lockout but this one is not as smart as the one in Azure AD. https://support.microsoft.com/en-us/help/4096478/extranet-smart-lockout-feature-in-windows-server-2016
The default lockout setting kicks in after ten invalid login attempts for one minute. The account locks again after each subsequent failed attempt, for one minute at first and longer periods in subsequent attempts. Also, smart lockout tracks the last three bad password hashes to avoid incrementing the lockout counter for the same password, basically, if the same bad password is entered multiple times, it will not cause another lockout.
Note: The monitoring of the same sign-in attempt is only available for the Password Hash sync scenario, as the Pass-Through password validation happens against your on-premise AD domain controllers.
Smart Lockout is always turned on for all Azure AD customers. If you want to modify the default behavior of 10 invalid attempts to trigger a one-minute lockout, then you require Azure AD P1 or P2 licenses for your users.